schizophrenia - signs of schizophrenia - schizophrenia medication


SCHIZOPHRENIA ( Split Mindedness )

written by DR/Fathy Khodier

what's schizophrenia

slow steady deterioration of the entire personality in which there is in-coordination between the major component - thought, affect and motor-activity - becoming loosened or unstable. 

About 2.4 million adults Americans are said to have schizophrenic illness     

the illness frequently involves young adults and can produce severe disability during the most creative and productive years of person's life.

schizoid personality
signs of schizophrenia

  • Highly sensitive , shy-full , stubborn
  • cold emotions 
  • day dreamer
  • introverted with tendency to be alone 
  • carelessness about the other's feelings and irritability
  • sometimes idealistic and tendency to suspeciousness 
  • He feels that nobody understand him
AETIOLOGY
the causes of schizophrenia cannot be proved beyond all reasonable doubt 
  1. GENATICS
    conclude that it is a dominant gene with low penetrate
  2. PSYCHO-SOCIAL THEORYin conclusion that it is an abnormal upbringing leading to failure of functioning outside the home resulting in a form of defensive mechanism in a psychotic picture to face intolerable stresses
  3. ENDOCRINE THEORIESa ) thyroid that there is change of the level of thyroid hormone during catatonic phase of periodic catatonia but have not confirmed

    b ) adrenals : there is some argue or difference around plasma and urinary excretion levels of steroids during acute psychosis
  4. BODY TYPEit was observed that the majority of schizophrenic patients are of the asthenic physique but inspite of this there are many exceptions to it
  5. BIOCHEMICAL THEORIESa) A toxic substance :
     this theory was provided with discovery of a mauve colour on plate paper chromatography ( Urine pink spot test ) it was thought that this might be hallucinogenic being similar in structure to mescaline and L.S.D - it was claimed that this may be adrenochrom or adrenolutin but it was not substantiated that any of them is psychotomimetic

    nevertheless the use of amphetamine over a long period and occasionally in small doses can cause schizophrenia form type illness.

    b) Toxic metabolic theory:
    that schizophrenic patients might show abnormal reactions to some metabolic products as dimethyl tryptamine a potent hallucinogenic derived from naturally occurring tryptamine. this reaction occured in 40% of a group of patients and no adverse reaction in a normal group.

    c) Antibody - Antigen theories:
    injection of monkeys with serum from schizophrenic patient produced schizophrenic symptoms. this substance was identified a taraxein which is mimilar to the copper containing enzyme ceruloplasmic that is not present in normal people.
    there is no real evidence at present of schizophrenic toxin.

    d) Defect in neural transmission involving the catecholmines.
    e) Biologically active amine:
    specially serotonin and it's precursors tryptophan. the work on indol amines became more interesting when it was realized that the analogues to serotonine eg. L.S.D and bufotenin, were hallucinogenic.